Bipolar II disorder in context: A review of epidemiology, disability and economic burden

George Hadjipavlou, David J. Bond, Lakshmi N. Yatham

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

6 Scopus citations


Writing in the late nineteenth century, the Prussian psychiatrist Ewald Hecker provided a clinical picture of a form of ‘cyclothymic’ illness manifesting in periods of depression and hypomania that bears a striking resemblance to the contemporary diagnostic category of Bipolar II disorder (BP II) (Koukopoulos, 2003). Hecker and his senior colleague, Ludwig Kaulbaum, probably influenced Emile Kraepelin’s seminal work on ‘manic-depressive insanity’ (Baethge et al., 2003). Kraepelin used the term ‘hypomania’ to refer to non-psychotic, milder forms of mania, which were expressed along a single continuum ranging from purely manic to recurring depressive states (Akiskal and Pinto, 1999; Koukopoulos, 2003). It is not difficult to imagine how a disorder similar to BP II would have fitted within this scheme (Akiskal and Pinto, 1999). Preceding such views by almost 2000 years, Aretaeus of Cappadocia is also known to have described a spectrum of bipolar illness with varying intensities of mania and depression in the first century AD (Goodwin and Jamison, 1990).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationBipolar II Disorder
Subtitle of host publicationModelling, Measuring and Managing, Second Edition
PublisherCambridge University Press
ISBN (Electronic)9781139003315
ISBN (Print)9781107600898
StatePublished - 2012

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