Patients with CKD typically have hypertension. Manual BP measurement in the office setting was used to define hypertension, establish eligibility, and assess BP targets in the epidemiologic studies and early randomized, controlled trials that inform current management of hypertension. Use of automated oscillometric devices has largely replaced manual BP measurement in the office and clinical trials. These newer devices may reduce the white coat effect and facilitate guideline-adherent measurement protocols. Obtaining BP measurements outside of the office with home and ambulatory BP monitoring is now more common. Out of office BPs are especially important in patients with CKD, because reduced GFR and proteinuria are associated with masked hypertension (normal office BP and elevated BP outside of the office), elevated nighttime BP, and abnormal diurnal variation in BP, all of which are associated with higher risk for target organ damage and adverse outcomes. Also, it is now feasible to routinely measure central BP and central hemodynamics. These measures are of greater importance to patients with CKD given the higher prevalence of increased sympathetic tone, arteriosclerosis, and inflammation as well as impaired sodium excretion and endothelial dysfunction, which lead to alterations in central BPs in this population. In this review, we describe various BP measurement techniques and how they apply to the care of patients with CKD.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology|
|State||Published - Jul 6 2018|
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.