Background We sought to determine the etiologies, diagnostic testing, and management of a retrospective cohort of patients with camptocormia evaluated at a single center. Methods We reviewed medical records of all adult patients evaluated at Mayo Clinic Rochester with a diagnosis of camptocormia from 2000 to 2014. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted and analyzed. Results There were 276 patients (58.0% male), with mean age at presentation of 68.6 (±12.7) years. An etiology was identified in 98.2%. The most common etiologies were idiopathic Parkinson disease (22.5%), idiopathic axial myopathy (14.1%), and degenerative joint disease without fixed deformity (13.0%). We also identified several rare causes of camptocormia. Investigations included spine imaging, needle and surface EMG, and muscle biopsy. Most patients received physical therapy and orthotic support with limited benefit. Limited improvement of camptocormia was seen where a treatable etiology was identified. Conclusions An etiology can be identified in almost all cases of camptocormia. Most cases are due to 3 common disorders: Parkinson disease, axial myopathy, and degenerative joint disease. A diagnostic and treatment algorithm is proposed.