Cruciferous and apiaceous vegetables may be chemopreventive due to their ability to modulate carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes but whether the effects on such enzymes are sustained over time is unknown. To examine the short- and long-term effects of the vegetables, rats were fed one of four diets for 7, 30, or 60 d: AIN-93G, CRU (21% cruciferous vegetables-fresh broccoli, green cabbage, watercress), API (9% apiaceous vegetables - fresh parsnips, celery), or API + CRU (10.5% CRU + 4.5% API). Although CRU increased activity and protein expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1A2 after 7 d, only activity was sustained after 30 and 60 d. There was a trend towards an interaction between the length of feeding period and CRU for CYP1A1 activity; activity increased with greater time of feeding. API increased CYP1A2 activity but decreased sulfotransferase 1A1 activity after 7 d, although not at later times. Altogether, increased CYP1A activity by CRU was maintained with long term feeding while protein amount decreased, suggesting influence by mechanisms other than, or in addition to, transcriptional regulation. Thus, response patterns and interactions with length of feeding may differ, depending upon the types of vegetables and enzymes, requiring caution when interpreting the results of short-term feeding studies.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Healthy Foods, Healthy Lives Institute, University of Minnesota (J.K?K., N?S., and C.M.G.) and NCI K07 CA128952-02 (S.P.T.)
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- Apiaceous vegetable
- Biotransformation enzyme
- Cruciferous vegetable
- Cytochrome P450
- Phase II enzymes