The coronary arteries were examined in 60 specimens from patients with mitral stenosis. In three, localized obstruction was nonatherosclerotic in nature (in one, arterial dysplasia; in two, embolic). In 18 of the remaining 57 cases (31.5%), significantly obstructive atherosclerosis in one or more segments of the coronary arterial system was found. This represented 46% of the males and 27% of the females. The incidence of involvement of three or more arteries by significantly obstructive atherosclerosis was 39%, while in a cited series of subjects with angina pectoris three or more vessels were involved in 79% of the cases. It may be concluded that, on the average, the distribution of lesions in patients with mitral stenosis and significant coronary atherosclerosis is less wide than in subjects with clinical coronary disease.