Cyst-Theca Relationship and Phylogenetic Position of Impagidinium caspienense Incubated from Caspian Sea Surface Sediments: Relation to Gonyaulax baltica and Evidence for Heterospory within Gonyaulacoid Dinoflagellates

Kenneth N. Mertens, Yoshihito Takano, Haifeng Gu, Siamak Bagheri, Vera Pospelova, Anna J. Pieńkowski, Suzanne A.G. Leroy, Kazumi Matsuoka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations

Abstract

We investigate the cyst-theca relationship of Impagidinium caspienense. Through an incubation experiment, we succeeded in examining the motile stage. Additional molecular analysis of single-cyst PCR (LSU and SSU rDNA) reveal that the cyst is related to the species Gonyaulax baltica Ellegaard et al. (). The ability of this species to belong to two types of cyst-based genera (spiniferate and impagidinioid) suggests that environmental (particularly salinity) and not genetic factors explain the formation of both morphotypes by G. baltica, which provides evidence for heterospory in this species. The affiliation to G. baltica demonstrates that I. caspienense is not endemic to the Caspian Sea. The phylogenetic position of several other gonyaulacoid species is also documented: Impagidinium pallidum, Ataxiodinium choane, Pyxidinopsis psilata, Spiniferites belerius, and Spiniferites ramosus. The LSU and SSU rDNA based phylogenies suggest that the genera Impagidinium and Spiniferites are not monophyletic, and that P. psilata and A. choane are close to Gonyaulax verior and Gonyaulax polygramma, respectively. In addition, this study accentuates the importance of cyst morphology in the classification of the Gonyaulacales.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)829-842
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Volume64
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2017
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Ataxiodinium choane
  • Baltic Sea
  • Impagidinium pallidum
  • Pyxidinopsis psilata
  • Spiniferites belerius
  • Spiniferites ramosus
  • salinity

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