Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of epithelial defects that occur with laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) using nonpreserved carboxymethylcellulose sodium 0.5% solution (Refresh Plus®) intraoperatively. Setting: Community-based refractive center. Methods: This retrospective study comprised 105 patients (210 eyes) who had primary bilateral LASIK by 1 of 2 surgeons between October 1 and December 1, 2000. The 114 eyes treated subsequent to November 1, 2000, received Refresh Plus intraoperatively, and the 96 eyes treated before this date did not. The incidence of epithelial defects and diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) in both groups was recorded. The preoperative keratometry measurements of all cases were also recorded. Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of epithelial defects in the group that received Refresh Plus intraoperatively (P = .02). No statistically significant between-group difference in the incidence of DLK was detected. Analysis of the keratometry measurements revealed no statistically significant association between the amount or axis of astigmatism and the incidence of epithelial defects or DLK. Conclusion: The intraoperative use of nonpreserved Refresh Plus significantly decreased the rate of epithelial defects that occurred during LASIK.