Copper(II)-mediated C-H oxidation is the subject of extensive interest in synthetic chemistry, but the mechanisms of many of these reactions are poorly understood. Here, we observe different products from CuII-mediated oxidation of N-(8-quinolinyl)benzamide, depending on the reaction conditions. Under basic conditions, the benzamide group undergoes directed C-H methoxylation or chlorination. Under acidic conditions, the quinoline group undergoes nondirected chlorination. Experimental and computational mechanistic studies implicate an organometallic C-H activation/functionalization mechanism under the former conditions and a single-electron-transfer mechanism under the latter conditions. This rare observation of divergent, condition-dependent mechanisms for oxidation of a single substrate provides a valuable foundation for understanding CuII-mediated C-H oxidation reactions.