Purpose: To evaluate the effect of cryotherapy on refractive error status between ages 3 months and 10 years in children with birth weights of less than 1251 g in whom severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) developed in one or both eyes during the neonatal period. Design: Randomized clinical trial. Participants: Two hundred ninety-one children in whom severe ROP developed during the neonatal period. Intervention: Cryotherapy for ROP. Main Outcome Measures: Cycloplegic Refraction. Methods: The children underwent repeated follow-up eye examinations, including cycloplegic retinoscopy, between 3 months and 10 years after term due date. Refractive error data from all eyes that were randomized to cryotherapy were compared with data from all eyes that were randomized to serve as controls. Refractive error data were also compared for a subset of children who had both a treated and a control eye that could be refracted. Results: At all ages, the proportion of treated eyes that were unable to be refracted because of retinal detachment, media opacity, or pupillary miosis was approximately half the proportion of the control eyes that were unable to be refracted. When data from all eyes that could be refracted were considered, the distribution of refractive errors between fewer than 8 diopters (D) of myopia and more than 8 D of hyperopia was similar for treated and control eyes at all ages. The proportion of eyes with 8 D or more of myopia was much higher in treated than in control eyes at all ages after 3 months. In the subset of children who had a treated eye and a control eye that could be refracted, distributions of refractive errors in treated versus control eyes were similar at most ages. Conclusions: In both treated and control eyes, there was an increase in the prevalence of high myopia between 3 and 12 months of age. Between 12 months and 10 years of age, there was little change in distribution of refractive error in treated or control eyes. The higher prevalence of myopia of 8 D or more in treated eyes, as compared with control eyes, may be the result of cryotherapy's preservation of retinal structure in eyes that, in the absence of cryotherapy, would have progressed to retinal detachment.