This study of 94 postmenopausal female smokers evaluated the effect of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and hormone therapy (HT) on change in weight, energy intake, and physical activity during 2 weeks of smoking abstinence. Women, stratified by current use of HT, were randomized to nicotine or placebo patch. After 2 weeks of abstinence, women on nicotine patch had significantly larger increases in total caloric and fat intake than women on placebo patch and a trend toward larger increases in carbohydrates (total and sweet). Conversely, the nicotine group had less weight gain, 0.47 kg, than the placebo group, 1.02 kg (F=10.31, p=0.002). No effects were observed for hormone therapy. It appears that in short-term smoking abstinence, postmenopausal women on NRT gain less weight than do women on placebo, in spite of consuming more calories. This may be beneficial in the critical first 1-2 weeks of tobacco cessation, especially in light of postmenopausal weight gain.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was funded by NIDA grant 2-R01-DA08075-04A1. We extend our thanks to our research staff–Alicia Allen and Roshan Paudel–for their help with subject recruitment and data measurement, Dr. Bruce Center for his statistical expertise, and Dr. Anne Marie Weber-Main for her critical review of manuscript drafts and editorial assistance. We also thank Berlex Laboratories (Wayne, New Jersey) for providing the Climara transdermal patches and Pharmacia and UpJohn for providing the Nicotrol patches.
- Energy intake
- Hormone therapy
- Nicotine replacement
- Postmenopausal women
- Smoking cessation