Effect of oral insulin on prevention of diabetes in relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes: A randomized clinical trial

Writing Committee for the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Oral Insulin Study Group

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47 Scopus citations

Abstract

IMPORTANCE: Type 1 diabetes requires major lifestyle changes and carries increased morbidity and mortality. Prevention or delay of diabetes would have major clinical effect. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether oral insulin delays onset of type 1 diabetes in autoantibody-positive relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Between March 2, 2007, and December 21, 2015, relatives with at least 2 autoantibodies, including insulin autoantibodies and normal glucose tolerance, were enrolled in Canada, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Italy, Sweden, Finland, and Germany. The main study group (n = 389) had first-phase insulin release on an intravenous glucose tolerance test that was higher than the threshold. The 55 patients in the secondary stratum 1 had an identical antibody profile as the main study group except they had first-phase insulin release that was lower than the threshold. Secondary strata 2 (n = 114) and strata 3 (n = 3) had different autoantibody profiles and first-phase insulin release threshold combinations. Follow-up continued through December 31, 2016. INTERVENTIONS: Randomization to receive 7.5 mg/d of oral insulin (n = 283) or placebo (n = 277), including participants in the main study group who received oral insulin (n = 203) or placebo (n = 186). MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was time to diabetes in the main study group. Significance was based on a 1-sided threshold of .05, and 1-sided 95% CIs are reported. RESULTS: Of a total of 560 randomized participants (median enrollment age, 8.2 years; interquartile range [IQR], 5.7-12.1 years; 170 boys [60%]; 90.7% white non-Hispanic; 57.6% with a sibling with type 1 diabetes), 550 completed the trial including 389 participants (median age, 8.4 years; 245 boys [63%]), 382 (96%) in the main study group. During a median follow-up of 2.7 years (IQR, 1.5-4.6 years) in the main study group, diabetes was diagnosed in 58 participants (28.5%) in the oral insulin group and 62 (33%) in the placebo group. Time to diabetes was not significantly different between the 2 groups (hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% CI, 0-1.2; P = .21). In secondary stratum 1 (n = 55), diabetes was diagnosed in 13 participants (48.1%) in the oral insulin group and in 19 participants (70.3%) in the placebo group. The time to diabetes was significantly longer with oral insulin (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0-0.82; P = .006). The HR for time to diabetes for the between-group comparisons for the 116 participants in the other secondary stratum was 1.03 (95% CI, 0-2.11; P = .53) and for the entire cohort of 560 participants was 0.83 (95% CI, 0-1.07; P = .11), which were not significantly different. The most common adverse event was infection (n = 254), with 134 events in the oral insulin group and 120 events in the placebo group, but no significant study-related adverse events occurred. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among autoantibody-positive relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes, oral insulin at a dose of 7.5 mg/d, compared with placebo, did not delay or prevent the development of type 1 diabetes over 2.7 years. These findings do not support oral insulin as used in this study for diabetes prevention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00419562.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1891-1902
Number of pages12
JournalJAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association
Volume318
Issue number19
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 21 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
the cooperative agreement funding mechanism used by the NIH, representatives from the sponsoring institutes of the National Institutes of Health (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) participated in the design and conduct of the study; interpretation of the data; preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript; and the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. The sponsor did not have the right or ability to veto submission for publication. Eli Lilly and Company provided insulin crystals used to make the oral insulin formulated for this study. As per the clinical trials agreement between Eli Lilly and the NIH, Eli Lilly was sent the draft manuscript prior to submission. Eli Lilly had no comment, nor input on the manuscript. The members of the writing committee were responsible for the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Funding Information:
The sponsor of the trial was the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Study Group. Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Study Group is a clinical trials network funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) through the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, through the cooperative agreements U01 DK060782, U01 DK060916, U01 DK060987, U01 DK061010, U01 DK061016, U01 DK061029, U01 DK061030, U01 DK061034, U01 DK061035, U01 DK061036, U01 DK061037, U01 DK061040, U01 DK061041, U01 DK061042, U01 DK061055, U01 DK061058, U01 DK084565, U01 DK085453, U01 DK085461, U01 DK085463, U01 DK085465, UC4 DK085466, U01 DK085476, U01 DK085499, U01 DK085504, U01 DK085505, U01 DK085509, U01 DK097835, U01 DK103153, U01 DK103180, U01 DK103266, U01 DK103282, U01 DK106984, UC4 DK106993, U01 DK106994, U01 DK107013, U01 DK107014, and a contract HHSN267200800019C; the National Center for Research Resources, through Clinical Translational Science Awards UL1 RR024131, UL1 RR024139, UL1 RR024153, UL1 RR024975, UL1 RR024982, UL1 RR025744, UL1 RR025761, UL1 RR025780, UL1 RR029890, UL1 RR031986, and General Clinical Research Center Award M01 RR00400; the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International (JDRF) with awards to European and Australian sites; and the American Diabetes Association (ADA).

Funding Information:
Funding/Support: The sponsor of the trial was the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Study Group. Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Study Group is a clinical trials network funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) through the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, through the cooperative agreements U01 DK060782, U01 DK060916, U01 DK060987, U01 DK061010, U01 DK061016, U01 DK061029, U01 DK061030, U01 DK061034, U01 DK061035, U01 DK061036, U01 DK061037, U01 DK061040, U01 DK061041, U01 DK061042, U01 DK061055, U01 DK061058, U01 DK084565, U01 DK085453, U01 DK085461, U01 DK085463, U01 DK085465, UC4 DK085466, U01 DK085476, U01 DK085499, U01 DK085504, U01 DK085505, U01 DK085509, U01 DK097835, U01 DK103153, U01 DK103180, U01 DK103266, U01 DK103282, U01 DK106984, UC4 DK106993, U01 DK106994, U01 DK107013, U01 DK107014, and a contract HHSN267200800019C; the National Center for Research Resources, through Clinical Translational Science Awards UL1 RR024131, UL1 RR024139, UL1 RR024153, UL1 RR024975, UL1 RR024982, UL1 RR025744, UL1 RR025761, UL1 RR025780, UL1 RR029890, UL1 RR031986, and General Clinical Research Center Award M01 RR00400; the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International (JDRF) with awards to European and Australian sites; and the American Diabetes Association (ADA).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

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