Effect of UV-photofunctionalization on oral bacterial attachment and biofilm formation to titanium implant material

Erica Dorigatti de Avila, Bruno P. Lima, Takeo Sekiya, Yasuyoshi Torii, Takahiro Ogawa, Wenyuan Shi, Renate Lux

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations

Abstract

Bacterial biofilm infections remain prevalent reasons for implant failure. Dental implant placement occurs in the oral environment, which harbors a plethora of biofilm-forming bacteria. Due to its trans-mucosal placement, part of the implant structure is exposed to oral cavity and there is no effective measure to prevent bacterial attachment to implant materials. Here, we demonstrated that UV treatment of titanium immediately prior to use (photofunctionalization) affects the ability of human polymicrobial oral biofilm communities to colonize in the presence of salivary and blood components. UV-treatment of machined titanium transformed the surface from hydrophobic to superhydrophilic. UV-treated surfaces exhibited a significant reduction in bacterial attachment as well as subsequent biofilm formation compared to untreated ones, even though overall bacterial viability was not affected. The function of reducing bacterial colonization was maintained on UV-treated titanium that had been stored in a liquid environment before use. Denaturing gradient gel-electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing analyses revealed that while bacterial community profiles appeared different between UV-treated and untreated titanium in the initial attachment phase, this difference vanished as biofilm formation progressed. Our findings confirm that UV-photofunctionalization of titanium has a strong potential to improve outcome of implant placement by creating and maintaining antimicrobial surfaces.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)84-92
Number of pages9
JournalBiomaterials
Volume67
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2015

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by a gift from Ushio Inc to Takahiro Ogawa. Renate Lux and Wenyuan Shi were supported by the National Institutes of Health ( NIDCR DE021108 and NIDCR DE020102 ), while Erica Doregatti de Avila was supported by CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level – or Education – Personnel) grant # 5603/13-7 and the Lemann Foundation .

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Keywords

  • Bacteria
  • Biofilm
  • Peri-implantitis
  • Photofunctionalization
  • Titanium

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