Based on analyses of 1,622 Hmong adolescents in a large urban school district, we illuminate a positive association between school different-race exposure and Hmong limited English proficient students’ reading achievement. However, we also note a negative association of neighborhood different-race exposure with Hmong students from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. These findings suggest that even if school different-race exposure opportunities are developed through racially diverse schools, this does not necessarily lead to desirable interracial social ties between Hmong students and mainstream English-speaking students. Rather, Hmong students from low SES backgrounds are more likely to benefit academically when they reside in predominantly Hmong neighborhoods.
- different-race exposure
- reading achievement