Elastic properties and apparent density of human edentulous maxilla and mandible

W. J. Seong, U. K. Kim, J. Q. Swift, Y. C. Heo, J. S. Hodges, C. C. Ko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


The aim of this study was to determine whether elastic properties and apparent density of bone differ in different anatomical regions of the maxilla and mandible. Additional analyses assessed how elastic properties and apparent density were related. Four pairs of edentulous maxilla and mandibles were retrieved from fresh human cadavers. Bone samples from four anatomical regions (maxillary anterior, maxillary posterior, mandibular anterior, mandibular posterior) were obtained. Elastic modulus (EM) and hardness (H) were measured using the nano-indentation technique. Bone samples containing cortical and trabecular bone were used to measure composite apparent density (cAD) using Archimedes' principle. Statistical analyses used repeated measures ANOVA and Pearson correlations. Bone physical properties differed between regions of the maxilla and mandible. Generally, mandible had higher physical property measurements than maxilla. EM and H were higher in posterior than in anterior regions; the reverse was true for cAD. Posterior maxillary cAD was significantly lower than that in the three other regions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1088-1093
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2009

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was partially supported by NIH/NIDCR R21-DE015410 grant. The authors would like to thank Dr Michelle Oyen for her support during nano-indentation.


  • apparent density
  • elastic modulus
  • hardness
  • human maxilla
  • mandible

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