Emergence of H3N2 reassortant influenza A viruses in North American pigs

Nan Nan Zhou, Dennis A. Senne, John S. Landgraf, Sabrina L. Swenson, Gene Erickson, Kurt Rossow, Lin Liu, Kyoung Jin Yoon, Scott Krauss, Robert G. Webster

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

64 Scopus citations


In late summer through early winter of 1998, there were several outbreaks of respiratory disease in the swine herds of North Carolina, Texas, Minnesota and Iowa. Four viral isolates from outbreaks in different states were analyzed, both antigenically and genetically. All of the isolates were identified as H3N2 influenza viruses with antigenic profiles similar to those of recent human H3 strains. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the four swine viruses had emerged through two different pathways. The North Carolina isolate is the product of genetic reassortment between human and swine influenza viruses, while the others arose from reassortment of human, swine and avian viral genes. The hemagglutinin genes of the four isolates were all derived from the human H3N2 virus circulating in 1995. It remains to be determined if either of these recently emerged viruses will become established in the pigs in North America and whether they will become an economic burden. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)47-58
Number of pages12
JournalVeterinary Microbiology
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - May 22 2000


  • H3N2
  • Human-avian-swine
  • Influenza viruses
  • Reassortants
  • Swine

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