Microalgal biomass has received much attention as feedstock for biofuel production due to its capacity to accumulate a substantial amount of biocomponents (including lipid, carbohydrate, and protein), high growth rate, and environmental benefit. However, commercial realization of microalgal biofuel is a challenge due to its low biomass production and insufficient technology for complete utilization of biomass. Recently, advanced strategies have been explored to overcome the challenges of conventional approaches and to achieve maximum possible outcomes in terms of growth. These strategies include a combination of stress factors; co-culturing with other microorganisms; and addition of salts, flue gases, and phytohormones. This review summarizes the recent progress in the application of single and combined abiotic stress conditions to stimulate microalgal growth and its biocomponents. An innovative schematic model is presented of the biomass-energy conversion pathway that proposes the transformation of all potential biocomponents of microalgae into biofuels.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean Government (MEST) (No. 2017R1A2B2004143) and a Korea Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the South Korean Government (MSIP) (No. KETEP-20163010092250).
- Algal biofuels
- Biofuel technologies
- Microalgae growth