Purpose To develop an imaging method to characterize and map marrow composition in the entire skeletal system, and to simulate differential targeted marrow irradiation based on marrow composition. Methods and Materials Whole-body dual energy computed tomography (DECT) images of cadavers and leukemia patients were acquired, segmented to separate bone marrow components, namely, bone, red marrow (RM), and yellow marrow (YM). DECT-derived marrow fat fraction was validated using histology of lumbar vertebrae obtained from cadavers. The fractions of RM (RMF = RM/total marrow) and YMF were calculated in each skeletal region to assess the correlation of marrow composition with sites and ages. Treatment planning was simulated to target irradiation differentially at a higher dose (18 Gy) to either RM or YM and a lower dose (12 Gy) to the rest of the skeleton. Results A significant correlation between fat fractions obtained from DECT and cadaver histology samples was observed (r=0.861, P<.0001, Pearson). The RMF decreased in the head, neck, and chest was significantly inversely correlated with age but did not show any significant age-related changes in the abdomen and pelvis regions. Conformity of radiation to targets (RM, YM) was significantly dependent on skeletal sites. The radiation exposure was significantly reduced (P<.05, t test) to organs at risk (OARs) in RM and YM irradiation compared with standard total marrow irradiation (TMI). Conclusions Whole-body DECT offers a new imaging technique to visualize and measure skeletal-wide marrow composition. The DECT-based treatment planning offers volumetric and site-specific precise radiation dosimetry of RM and YM, which varies with aging. Our proposed method could be used as a functional compartment of TMI for further targeted radiation to specific bone marrow environment, dose escalation, reduction of doses to OARs, or a combination of these factors.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics|
|State||Published - Nov 1 2016|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Supported by National Institutes of Health grant 1R01CA154491-01 , the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Core-to-Core Program (No. 23003), Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellow ( 13J02944 ), and Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) ( 26860397 ).
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