Wild-type mice control murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) brain infection, but identical infection is lethal to animals deficient in interleukin (IL)-10. Here, we report that MCMV-infected IL-10 knockout (KO) mice displayed a marked increase in neutrophil infiltration into the infected, IL-10-deficient brain when compared to wild-type animals. Enhanced microglial cell activation, determined by MHC class II up-regulation, overexpression of CXCL2, and elevated P-selectin mRNA levels were observed. In vivo blocking of CXCL2 attenuated neutrophil infiltration and significantly improved the outcome of infection. Collectively, these data indicate that the absence of IL-10 results in pathologic neutrophil infiltration into MCMV-infected brains.