Obesity-linked metabolic disease is mechanistically associated with the accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages in adipose tissue, leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and chronic low-grade inflammation. Previous work has demonstrated that deletion of the adipocyte fatty acidbinding protein (FABP4/aP2) uncouples obesity from inflammation via upregulation of the uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). Here, we demonstrate that ablation of FABP4/ aP2 regulates systemic redox capacity and reduces cellular protein sulfhydryl oxidation and, in particular, oxidation of mitochondrial protein cysteine residues. Coincident with the loss of FABP4/aP2 is the upregulation of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD2), catalase, methionine sulfoxide reductase A, and the 20S proteasome subunits PSMB5 and αβ. Reduced mitochondrial protein oxidation in FABP4/ aP2-/- macrophages attenuates the mitochondrial unfolded-protein response (mtUPR) as measured by expression of heat shock protein 60, Clp protease, and Lon peptidase 1. Consistent with a diminished mtUPR, FABP4/aP2-/- macrophages exhibit reduced expression of cleaved caspase-1 and NLRP3. Secretion of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), in response to inflammasome activation, is ablated in FABP4/aP2-/- macrophages, as well as in FABP4/aP2 inhibitor-treated cells, but partially rescued in FABP4/aP2-null macrophages when UCP2 is silenced. Collectively, these data offer a novel pathway whereby FABP4/aP2 regulates macrophage redox signaling and inflammasome activation via control of UCP2 expression.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We acknowledge many helpful discussions with members of the Bernlohr laboratory and the assistance of Jill Suttles, University of Louisville. This study was supported by grants NIH R01 DK053189 to D.A.B. and NIH T32 AG029796 to K.A.S. and by the Minnesota Nutrition and Obesity Center (NIH P30 DK050456).
- Mitochondrial metabolism