Fast-food consumption, diet quality and body weight: Cross-sectional and prospective associations in a community sample of working adults

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Abstract

Objective To examine the association between fast-food consumption, diet quality and body weight in a community sample of working adults. Design Cross-sectional and prospective analysis of anthropometric, survey and dietary data from adults recruited to participate in a worksite nutrition intervention. Participants self-reported frequency of fast-food consumption per week. Nutrient intakes and diet quality, using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), were computed from dietary recalls collected at baseline and 6 months. Setting Metropolitan medical complex, Minneapolis, MN, USA. Subjects Two hundred adults, aged 18-60 years. Results Cross-sectionally, fast-food consumption was significantly associated with higher daily total energy intake (β=72·5, P=0·005), empty calories (β=0·40, P=0·006) and BMI (β=0·73, P=0·011), and lower HEI-2010 score (β=-1·23, P=0·012), total vegetables (β=-0·14, P=0·004), whole grains (β=-0·39, P=0·005), fibre (β=-0·83, P=0·002), Mg (β=-6·99, P=0·019) and K (β=-57·5, P=0·016). Over 6 months, change in fast-food consumption was not significantly associated with changes in energy intake or BMI, but was significantly inversely associated with total intake of vegetables (β=-0·14, P=0·034). Conclusions Frequency of fast-food consumption was significantly associated with higher energy intake and poorer diet quality cross-sectionally. Six-month change in fast-food intake was small, and not significantly associated with overall diet quality or BMI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)885-892
Number of pages8
JournalPublic health nutrition
Volume19
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Institute Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) (grant number R01DK081714). The NIH/NIDDK had no role in the design, analysis or writing of this article. Conflict of interest: None. Authorship: S.A.F. conceptualized and designed the intervention study. T.L.B. drafted the manuscript and performed the primary statistical analyses. N.R.M. contributed to the development of the study and measurement protocols. J.W. contributed to the statistical analyses. All authors contributed to the writing of the final manuscript. Ethics of human subject participation: This research was approved by the University of Minnesota Institutional Review Board.

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © The Authors 2015.

Keywords

  • Adults
  • BMI
  • Diet quality
  • Fast food
  • Healthy Eating Index
  • Nutrient intake
  • Weight

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