Objective: This study evaluated the requirement for surgical reoperation and catheter-based reintervention to central pulmonary arteries (CPAs) following Norwood Procedure (NP). We sought to identify the influence of various surgical techniques employed during NP on subsequent interventions. Methods: Between 1993 and 2004, 226 patients underwent Stage II following NP. Ninety-eight patients (43%) had completion of Fontan circulation (Stage III) and a further 107 (47%) are on course for Fontan completion with 21 (9%) inter-stage deaths. During NP, the aortic arch was reconstructed without additional material (n = 91, 40%) or with a pulmonary homograft patch (n = 135, 60%). Pulmonary blood flow was supplied by modified Blalock-Taussig shunt (n = 177, 78%) or right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit (RV-PA; n = 49, 22%). The CPAs defect was closed directly (n = 69, 31%) or with a patch (n = 157, 69%). Complete resection of coarctation was performed in 126 patients (56%). Results: Ninety-seven patients (43%) required surgical reoperation to CPAs during Stage II. Actuarial freedom from reoperation was 60 ± 3%, 52 ± 4% and 50 ± 4% at 1, 5 and 10 years, respectively. On multivariable analysis, NP with RV-PA increased risk of reoperation (LR 8.3, 5.3-13.2; p < 0.001). Forty-one patients (18%) required catheter-based reintervention on CPAs. Actuarial freedom from reintervention was 98 ± 1%, 72 ± 4% and 58 ± 6% at 1, 5 and 10 years, respectively. CPA problems were almost exclusively limited to the proximal Left pulmonary artery. On multivariable analysis, catheter-based reintervention became more common with time. Complete resection of coarctation increased risk of reintervention (LR 3.9, 1.6-9.6; p < 0.005). Arch reconstruction and CPAs repair techniques did not affect risk of reoperation or reintervention on CPAs. Conclusions: CPA stenoses and hypoplasia need surgical attention in approximately half of all patients undergoing the NP. The need for reoperation is increased when using the RV-PA conduit technique (although the majority of these are performed as part of the Stage II procedure). Catheter reinterventions are almost exclusively confined to the left CPA and are increased when the arch is shortened by resection of the coarctation tissue at time of NP.
- Pulmonary arteries
- Surgical technique