Purpose: To investigate whether galbanic acid (GBA) exerts anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer activities. Methods: Using human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) model, we analyzed effects of GBA on cellular and molecular events related to angiogenesis. We tested its direct anti-proliferative action on mouse Lewis lung cancer (LLC) cells and established its in vivo anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor efficacy using LLC model. Results: GBA significantly decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation and inhibited VEGF-induced migration and tube formation of HUVECs. These effects were accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and AKT, and decreased expression of VEGFR targets endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and cyclin D1 in VEGF-treated HUVECs. GBA also decreased LLC proliferation with an apparent G2/M arrest, but did not induce apoptosis. In vivo, inclusion of GBA in Matrigel plugs reduced VEGF-induced angiogenesis in mice. Galbanic acid given by daily i.p. injection (1 mg/kg) inhibited LLC-induced angiogenesis in an intradermal inoculation model and inhibited the growth of s.c. inoculated LLC allograft in syngenic mice. Immunohistochemistry revealed decreased CD34 microvessel density index and Ki-67 proliferative index in GBA-treated tumors. Conclusions: GBA exerts anti-cancer activity in association with anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative actions.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Medical Research Center (MRC) grant (No. 2009-0063466) (S.H. Kim) and Hormel Foundation and NIH grant CA136953 (J. Lu). All authors declare no personal or financial conflict of interests.
- Lewis lung cancer
- galbanic acid
- mouse lung cancer