Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Combination with Bevacizumab for Recurrent Glioblastoma

Saint Aaron L. Morris, Ping Zhu, Mayank Rao, Magda Martir, Jay J. Zhu, Sigmund Hsu, Leomar Y. Ballester, Arthur L. Day, Nitin Tandon, Dong H. Kim, Scott Shepard, Angel Blanco, Yoshua Esquenazi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Prior retrospective and prospective studies suggest improved survival with the use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and bevacizumab in the treatment of limited-volume glioblastoma (GBM) recurrences. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our experience with gamma knife SRS in combination with bevacizumab for the treatment of focal GBM recurrence during 2009–2015. Outcomes include overall survival, progression free survival (PFS), and radiation-related adverse events. Kaplan–Meier methods and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were performed for survival analysis. Results: Within a median of 13.7 months after diagnosis, a total of 45 patients with GBM underwent gamma knife SRS and bevacizumab treatment. Median age was 57 years (range: 20–78 years) and 63.3% were women. The median Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) at recurrence was 80 (range: 40–100). Sixty-four percent of patients had single radiosurgery target (range: 1–4) and median target volume and margin dose were 2.2 cm3 (range: 0.1–25.2 cm3) and 17.0 gray (Gy) (range: 13–24 Gy), respectively. Median PFS and overall survival were 9.3, 31.0 months following diagnosis, and 5.2, 13.3 months after SRS, respectively. Factors associated with poor outcomes were KPS ≤70, SRS dose <18 Gy, and use of <2 chemotherapy agents prior to SRS. No radiation-related adverse events occurred. Conclusions: SRS in combination with bevacizumab can be safely used to treat focal GBM recurrence. KPS, radiation dose, and multi-agent chemotherapy usage prior to SRS demonstrated significant impact on PFS. Bevacizumab may provide clinically relevant radioprotection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e523-e533
JournalWorld neurosurgery
StatePublished - Jul 2019
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Elsevier Inc.


  • Bevacizumab
  • Gamma knife
  • Radiosurgery
  • Recurrent glioblastoma
  • Stereotactic radiosurgery


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