Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

Theo Vos, Ryan M. Barber, Brad Bell, Amelia Bertozzi-Villa, Stan Biryukov, Ian Bolliger, Fiona Charlson, Adrian Davis, Louisa Degenhardt, Daniel Dicker, Leilei Duan, Holly Erskine, Valery L. Feigin, Alize J. Ferrari, Christina Fitzmaurice, Thomas Fleming, Nicholas Graetz, Caterina Guinovart, Juanita Haagsma, Gillian M. HansenSarah Wulf Hanson, Kyle R. Heuton, Hideki Higashi, Nicholas Kassebaum, Hmwe Kyu, Evan Laurie, Xiofeng Liang, Katherine Lofgren, Rafael Lozano, Michael F. MacIntyre, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Mohsen Naghavi, Grant Nguyen, Shaun Odell, Katrina Ortblad, David Allen Roberts, Gregory A. Roth, Logan Sandar, Peter T. Serina, Jeffrey D. Stanaway, Caitlyn Steiner, Bernadette Thomas, Stein Emil Vollset, Harvey Whiteford, Timothy M. Wolock, Pengpeng Ye, Maigeng Zhou, Marco A. Ãvila, Gunn Marit Aasvang, Cristiana Abbafati, Ayse Abbasoglu Ozgoren, Foad Abd-Allah, Muna I.Abdel Aziz, Semaw F. Abera, Victor Aboyans, Jerry P. Abraham, Biju Abraham, Ibrahim Abubakar, Laith J. Abu-Raddad, Niveen M.E. Abu-Rmeileh, Tania C. Aburto, Tom Achoki, Ilana N. Ackerman, Ademola Adelekan, Zanfina Ademi, Arsène K. Adou, Josef C. Adsuar, Johan Arnlov, Emilie E. Agardh, Mazin J. Al Khabouri, Sayed Saidul Alam, Deena Alasfoor, Mohammed I. Albittar, Miguel A. Alegretti, Alicia V. Aleman, Zewdie A. Alemu, Rafael Alfonso-Cristancho, Samia Alhabib, Raghib Ali, Francois Alla, Peter Allebeck, Peter J. Allen, Mohammad Abdulaziz AlMazroa, Ubai Alsharif, Elena Alvarez, Nelson Alvis-Guzman, Omid Ameli, Heresh Amini, Walid Ammar, Benjamin O. Anderson, H. Ross Anderson, Carl Abelardo T. Antonio, Palwasha Anwari, Henry Apfel, Valentain S.Arsic Arsenijevic, Al Artaman, Rana J. Asghar, Reza Assadi, Lydia S. Atkins, Charles Atkinson, Alaa Badawi, Maria C. Bahit, Talal Bakfalouni, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Shivanthi Balalla, Amitava Banerjee, Suzanne L. Barker-Collo, Simon Barquera, Lars Barregard, Lope H. Barrero, Sanjay Basu, Arindam Basu, Amanda Baxter, Justin Beardsley, Neeraj Bedi, Ettore Beghi, Tolesa Bekele, Michelle L. Bell, Corina Benjet, Derrick A. Bennett, Isabela M. Bensenor, Habib Benzian, Eduardo Bernabe, Tariku J. Beyene, Neeraj Bhala, Ashish Bhalla, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Kelly Bienhoff, Boris Bikbov, Aref Bin Abdulhak, Jed D. Blore, Fiona M. Blyth, Megan A. Bohensky, Berrak Bora Basara, Guilherme Borges, Natan M. Bornstein, Dipan Bose, Soufiane Boufous, Rupert R. Bourne, Lindsay N. Boyers, Michael Brainin, Michael Brauer, Carol E.G. Brayne, Alexandra Brazinova, Nicholas J.K. Breitborde, Hermann Brenner, Adam D.M. Briggs, Peter M. Brooks, Jonathan Brown, Traolach S. Brugha, Rachelle Buchbinder, Geoffrey C. Buckle, Gene Bukhman, Andrew G. Bulloch, Michael Burch, Richard Burnett, Rosario Cardenas, Norberto L. Cabral, Ismael R. Campos-Nonato, Julio C. Campuzano, Jonathan R. Carapetis, David O. Carpenter, Valeria Caso, Carlos A. Castaneda-Orjuela, Ferran Catala-Lopez, Vineet K. Chadha, Jung Chen Chang, Honglei Chen, Wanqing Chen, Peggy P. Chiang, Odgerel Chimed-Ochir, Rajiv Chowdhury, Hanne Christensen, Costas A. Christophi, Sumeet S. Chugh, Massimo Cirillo, Megan Coggeshall, Aaron Cohen, Valentina Colistro, Samantha M. Colquhoun, Alejandra G. Contreras, Leslie T. Cooper, Cyrus Cooper, Kimberly Cooperrider, Josef Coresh, Monica Cortinovis, Michael H. Criqui, John A. Crump, Lucia Cuevas-Nasu, Rakhi Dandona, Lalit Dandona, Emily Dansereau, Hector G. Dantes, Paul I. Dargan, Gail Davey, Dragos V. Davitoiu, Anand Dayama, Vanessa De La Cruz-Gongora, Shelley F. De La Vega, Diego De Leo, Borja Del Pozo-Cruz, Robert P. Dellavalle, Kebede Deribe, Sarah Derrett, Don C. Des Jarlais, Muluken Dessalegn, Gabrielle A. DeVeber, Samath D. Dharmaratne, Cesar Diaz-Torne, Eric L. Ding, Klara Dokova, E. R. Dorsey, Tim R. Driscoll, Herbert Duber, Adnan M. Durrani, Karen M. Edmond, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Matthias Endres, Sergey P. Ermakov, Babak Eshrati, Alireza Esteghamati, Kara Estep, Saman Fahimi, Farshad Farzadfar, Derek F.J. Fay, David T. Felson, Seyed Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Jefferson G. Fernandes, Cluesa P. Ferri, Abraham Flaxman, Nataliya Foigt, Kyle J. Foreman, F. Gerry R. Fowkes, Richard C. Franklin, Thomas Furst, Neal D. Futran, Belinda J. Gabbe, Fortune G. Gankpe, Francisco A. Garcia-Guerra, Johanna M. Geleijnse, Bradford D. Gessner, Katherine B. Gibney, Richard F. Gillum, Ibrahim A. Ginawi, Maurice Giroud, Giorgia Giussani, Shifalika Goenka, Ketevan Goginashvili, Philimon Gona, Teresita Gonzalez De Cosio, Richard A. Gosselin, Carolyn C. Gotay, Atsushi Goto, Hebe N. Gouda, Richard L. Guerrant, Harish C. Gugnani, David Gunnell, Rajeev Gupta, Rahul Gupta, Reyna A. Gutierrez, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Holly Hagan, Yara Halasa, Randah R. Hamadeh, Hannah Hamavid, Mouhanad Hammami, Graeme J. Hankey, Yuantao Hao, Hilda L. Harb, Josep Maria Haro, Rasmus Havmoeller, Roderick J. Hay, Simon Hay, Mohammad T. Hedayati, Ileana B.Heredia Pi, Pouria Heydarpour, Martha Hijar, Hans W. Hoek, Howard J. Hoffman, John C. Hornberger, H. Dean Hosgood, Mazeda Hossain, Peter J. Hotez, Damian G. Hoy, Mohamed Hsairi, Howard Hu, Guoqing Hu, John J. Huang, Cheng Huang, Laetitia Huiart, Abdullatif Husseini, Marissa Iannarone, Kim M. Iburg, Kaire Innos, Manami Inoue, Kathryn H. Jacobsen, Simerjot K. Jassal, Panniyammakal Jeemon, Paul N. Jensen, Vivekanand Jha, Guohong Jiang, Ying Jiang, Jost B. Jonas, Jonathan Joseph, Knud Juel, Haidong Kan, Andre Karch, Chante Karimkhani, Ganesan Karthikeyan, Ronit Katz, Anil Kaul, Norito Kawakami, Dhruv S. Kazi, Andrew H. Kemp, Andre P. Kengne, Yousef S. Khader, Shams Eldin A.H. Khalifa, Ejaz A. Khan, Gulfaraz Khan, Young Ho Khang, Irma Khonelidze, Christian Kieling, Daniel Kim, Sungroul Kim, Ruth W. Kimokoti, Yohannes Kinfu, Jonas M. Kinge, Brett M. Kissela, Miia Kivipelto, Luke Knibbs, Ann Kristin Knudsen, Yoshihiro Kokubo, Soewarta Kosen, Alexander Kramer, Michael Kravchenko, Rita V. Krishnamurthi, Sanjay Krishnaswami, Barthelemy Kuate Defo, Burcu Kucuk Bicer, Ernst J. Kuipers, Veena S. Kulkarni, Kaushalendra Kumar, G. Anil Kumar, Gene F. Kwan, Taavi Lai, Ratilal Lalloo, Hilton Lam, Qing Lan, Van C. Lansingh, Heidi Larson, Anders Larsson, Alicia E.B. Lawrynowicz, Janet L. Leasher, Jong Tae Lee, James Leigh, Ricky Leung, Miriam Levi, Bin Li, Yichong Li, Yongmei Li, Juan Liang, Stephen Lim, Hsien Ho Lin, Margaret Lind, M. Patrice Lindsay, Steven E. Lipshultz, Shiwei Liu, Belinda K. Lloyd, Summer Lockett Ohno, Giancarlo Logroscino, Katharine J. Looker, Alan D. Lopez, Nancy Lopez-Olmedo, Joannie Lortet-Tieulent, Paulo A. Lotufo, Nicola Low, Robyn M. Lucas, Raimundas Lunevicius, Ronan A. Lyons, Jixiang Ma, Stefan Ma, Mark T. MacKay, Marek Majdan, Reza Malekzadeh, Christopher C. Mapoma, Wagner Marcenes, Lyn M. March, Chris Margono, Guy B. Marks, Melvin B. Marzan, Joseph R. Masci, Amanda J. Mason-Jones, Richard G. Matzopoulos, Bongani M. Mayosi, Tasara T. Mazorodze, Neil W. McGill, John J. McGrath, Martin McKee, Abby McLain, Brian J. McMahon, Peter A. Meaney, Man Mohan Mehndiratta, Fabiola Mejia-Rodriguez, Wubegzier Mekonnen, Yohannes A. Melaku, Michele Meltzer, Ziad A. Memish, George Mensah, Atte Meretoja, Francis A. Mhimbira, Renata Micha, Ted R. Miller, Edward J. Mills, Philip B. Mitchell, Charles N. Mock, Terrie E. Moffitt, Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim, Karzan A. Mohammad, Ali H. Mokdad, Glen L. Mola, Lorenzo Monasta, Marcella Montico, Thomas J. Montine, Ami R. Moore, Andrew E. Moran, Lidia Morawska, Rintaro Mori, Joanna Moschandreas, Wilkister N. Moturi, Madeline Moyer, Dariush Mozaffarian, Ulrich O. Mueller, Mitsuru Mukaigawara, Michele E. Murdoch, Joseph Murray, Kinnari S. Murthy, Paria Naghavi, Ziad Nahas, Aliya Naheed, Kovin S. Naidoo, Luigi Naldi, Devina Nand, Vinay Nangia, K. M.Venkat Narayan, Denis Nash, Chakib Nejjari, Sudan P. Neupane, Lori M. Newman, Charles R. Newton, Marie Ng, Frida N. Ngalesoni, Nguyen T. Nhung, Muhammad I. Nisar, Sandra Nolte, Ole F. Norheim, Rosana E. Norman, Bo Norrving, Luke Nyakarahuka, In Hwan Oh, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Saad B. Omer, John Nelson Opio, Alberto Ortiz, Jeyaraj D. Pandian, Carlo Irwin A. Panelo, Christina Papachristou, Eun Kee Park, Charles D. Parry, Angel J.Paternina Caicedo, Scott B. Patten, Vinod K. Paul, Boris I. Pavlin, Neil Pearce, Lilia S. Pedraza, Carlos A. Pellegrini, David M. Pereira, Fernando P. Perez-Ruiz, Norberto Perico, Aslam Pervaiz, Konrad Pesudovs, Carrie B. Peterson, Max Petzold, Michael R. Phillips, David Phillips, Bryan Phillips, Frederic B. Piel, Dietrich Plass, Dan Poenaru, Guilherme V. Polanczyk, Suzanne Polinder, C. A. Pope, Svetlana Popova, Richie G. Poulton, Farshad Pourmalek, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Noela M. Prasad, Dima Qato, D. A. Quistberg, Anwar Rafay, Kazem Rahimi, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Sajjad Ur Rahman, Murugesan Raju, Ivo Rakovac, Saleem M. Rana, Homie Razavi, Amany Refaat, Jurgen Rehm, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Serge Resnikoff, Antonio L. Ribeiro, Patricia M. Riccio, Lee Richardson, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Anne M. Riederer, Margot Robinson, Anna Roca, Alina Rodriguez, David Rojas-Rueda, Luca Ronfani, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Nobhojit Roy, George M. Ruhago, Nsanzimana Sabin, Ralph L. Sacco, Kjetil Ksoreide, Sukanta Saha, Ramesh Sahathevan, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Uchechukwu Sampson, Juan R. Sanabria, Lidia Sanchez-Riera, Itamar S. Santos, Maheswar Satpathy, James E. Saunders, Monika Sawhney, Mete I. Saylan, Peter Scarborough, Ben Schoettker, Ione J.C. Schneider, David C. Schwebel, James G. Scott, Soraya Seedat, Sadaf G. Sepanlou, Berrin Serdar, Edson E. Servan-Mori, Katya Shackelford, Amira Shaheen, Saeid Shahraz, Teresa Shamah Levy, Siyi Shangguan, Jun She, Sara Sheikhbahaei, Donald S. Shepard, Peilin Shi, Kenji Shibuya, Yukito Shinohara, Rahman Shiri, Kawkab Shishani, Ivy Shiue, Mark G. Shrime, Inga D. Sigfusdottir, Donald H. Silberberg, Edgar P. Simard, Shireen Sindi, Jasvinder A. Singh, Lavanya Singh, Vegard Skirbekk, Karen Sliwa, Michael Soljak, Samir Soneji, Sergey S. Soshnikov, Peter Speyer, Luciano A. Sposato, Chandrashekhar T. Sreeramareddy, Heidi Stoeckl, Vasiliki Kalliopi Stathopoulou, Nadine Steckling, Murray B. Stein, Dan J. Stein, Timothy J. Steiner, Andrea Stewart, Eden Stork, Lars J. Stovner, Konstantinos Stroumpoulis, Lela Sturua, Bruno F. Sunguya, Mamta Swaroop, Bryan L. Sykes, Karen M. Tabb, Ken Takahashi, Feng Tan, Nikhil Tandon, David Tanne, Marcel Tanner, Mohammad Tavakkoli, Hugh R. Taylor, Braden J. Te Ao, Awoke Misganaw Temesgen, Margreet Ten Have, Eric Yeboah Tenkorang, Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi, Alice M. Theadom, Elissa Thomas, Andrew L. Thorne-Lyman, Amanda G. Thrift, Imad M. Tleyjeh, Marcello Tonelli, Fotis Topouzis, Jeffrey A. Towbin, Hideaki Toyoshima, Jefferson Traebert, Bach X. Tran, Leonardo Trasande, Matias Trillini, Thomas Truelsen, Ulises Trujillo, Miltiadis Tsilimbaris, Emin M. Tuzcu, Kingsley N. Ukwaja, Eduardo A. Undurraga, Selen B. Uzun, Wim H. Van Brakel, Steven Van De Vijver, Rita Van Dingenen, Coen H. Van Gool, Yuri Y. Varakin, Tommi J. Vasankari, Monica S. Vavilala, Lennert J. Veerman, Gustavo Velasquez-Melendez, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Lakshmi Vijayakumar, Salvador Villalpando, Francesco S. Violante, Vasiliy V. Vlassov, Stephen Waller, Mitchell T. Wallin, Xia Wan, Linhong Wang, Jianli Wang, Yanping Wang, Tati S. Warouw, Scott Weichenthal, Elisabete Weiderpass, Robert G. Weintraub, Andrea Werdecker, K. Ryan Wessells, Ronny Westerman, James D. Wilkinson, Hywel C. Williams, Thomas N. Williams, Solomon M. Woldeyohannes, Charles D.A. Wolfe, John Q. Wong, Haidong Wong, Anthony D. Woolf, Jonathan L. Wright, Brittany Wurtz, Gelin Xu, Gonghuan Yang, Yuichiro Yano, Muluken A. Yenesew, Gokalp K. Yentur, Paul Yip, Naohiro Yonemoto, Seok Jun Yoon, Mustafa Younis, Chuanhua Yu, Kim Yun Kim, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Yong Zhang, Zheng Zhao, Yong Zhao, Jun Zhu, David Zonies, Joseph R. Zunt, Joshua A. Salomon, Christopher J.L. Murray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3192 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities for acute and chronic diseases and injuries for 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. Methods Estimates were calculated for disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and YLDs using GBD 2010 methods with some important refinements. Results for incidence of acute disorders and prevalence of chronic disorders are new additions to the analysis. Key improvements include expansion to the cause and sequelae list, updated systematic reviews, use of detailed injury codes, improvements to the Bayesian meta-regression method (DisMod-MR), and use of severity splits for various causes. An index of data representativeness, showing data availability, was calculated for each cause and impairment during three periods globally and at the country level for 2013. In total, 35 620 distinct sources of data were used and documented to calculated estimates for 301 diseases and injuries and 2337 sequelae. The comorbidity simulation provides estimates for the number of sequelae, concurrently, by individuals by country, year, age, and sex. Disability weights were updated with the addition of new population-based survey data from four countries. Findings Disease and injury were highly prevalent; only a small fraction of individuals had no sequelae. Comorbidity rose substantially with age and in absolute terms from 1990 to 2013. Incidence of acute sequelae were predominantly infectious diseases and short-term injuries, with over 2 billion cases of upper respiratory infections and diarrhoeal disease episodes in 2013, with the notable exception of tooth pain due to permanent caries with more than 200 million incident cases in 2013. Conversely, leading chronic sequelae were largely attributable to non-communicable diseases, with prevalence estimates for asymptomatic permanent caries and tension-type headache of 2·4 billion and 1·6 billion, respectively. The distribution of the number of sequelae in populations varied widely across regions, with an expected relation between age and disease prevalence. YLDs for both sexes increased from 537·6 million in 1990 to 764·8 million in 2013 due to population growth and ageing, whereas the age-standardised rate decreased little from 114·87 per 1000 people to 110·31 per 1000 people between 1990 and 2013. Leading causes of YLDs included low back pain and major depressive disorder among the top ten causes of YLDs in every country. YLD rates per person, by major cause groups, indicated the main drivers of increases were due to musculoskeletal, mental, and substance use disorders, neurological disorders, and chronic respiratory diseases; however HIV/AIDS was a notable driver of increasing YLDs in sub-Saharan Africa. Also, the proportion of disability-adjusted life years due to YLDs increased globally from 21·1% in 1990 to 31·2% in 2013. Interpretation Ageing of the world's population is leading to a substantial increase in the numbers of individuals with sequelae of diseases and injuries. Rates of YLDs are declining much more slowly than mortality rates. The non-fatal dimensions of disease and injury will require more and more attention from health systems. The transition to non-fatal outcomes as the dominant source of burden of disease is occurring rapidly outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results can guide future health initiatives through examination of epidemiological trends and a better understanding of variation across countries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)743-800
Number of pages58
JournalThe Lancet
Volume386
Issue number9995
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 22 2015

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation . VF and RK were partly supported by the unrestricted educational grant from Lundbeck and Auckland University of Technology University . RM received funding from Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan . LD is supported by an Australian National health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Principal Research Fellowship (# 1041742 ). Work by NY was supported by funding from the Japan Society of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics . YK would like to thank the National Heart Foundation, Australia , for extending a special grant to the University of Canberra that enabled him to participate in the GBD 2013 study and more broadly engage in research on cardiovascular conditions in Australia. TW would like to acknowledge the Wellcome Trust , through whom he is supported through a Senior Research Fellowship number 091758 . During the study, KJL received funding from Health Protection Scotland , the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Protection Research Unit (HPRU) in Evaluation of Interventions , and Sexual Health 24 . KJL received funding from WHO to conduct the review of HSV.2 seroprevalence data that informed this study. GR's contribution to this paper has been on behalf of the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) , as a follow-up of the activities of the GBD 2010 Genitourinary Diseases Expert Group. KTD would like to acknowledge the following funding source of institutional support: University of Illinois , Lemann Institute for Brazilian Studies Faculty Research Grant . KR is supported by the NIHR Oxford BRC and an NIHR Career Development Fellowship . FC-L would like to thank funding support by CIBERSAM , Instituto de Salud Carlos III , Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, Madrid, Spain . LJAR would like to acknowledge the support of Qatar National Research Fund ( NPRP 04-924-3-251 ) who provided the main funding for generating the data provided to the GBD-IHME effort. MBS is a member of the board of directors of the Anxiety and Depression Association of America (a non-profit professional and consumer organization). He has in the past 24 months been a consultant for companies that either market or are conducting research involving antidepressant or antianxiety medications: Janssen, Pfizer, and Tonix Pharmaceuticals. JAC is supported by the joint US National Institutes of Health-National Science Foundation Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Disease program ( R01 TW009237 ) and the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) ( BB/J010367/1 ), and by UK BBSRC Zoonoses in Emerging Livestock Systems awards BB/L017679 , BB/L018926 , and BB/L018845 . HW, AF, FC, and HE are affiliated with the Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, which receives funding from the Queensland Department of Health . EB has received money for board membership by VIROPHARMA and EISAI ; funding for travel and speaker honoraria from UCB-Pharma and GlaxoSmithKline and funding for educational presentations from GlaxoSmithKline ; grants for research activities from the Italian Drug Agency , Italian Ministry of Health , Sanofi-Aventis , and the American ALS Association . ML would like to acknowledge the institutional support received from CeRIMP , Centro Regionale Infortuni e Malattie Professionali Regione Toscana (via S. Salvi, 12 - 50135 Firenze – Italy) . AB would like to acknowledge funding from the Wellcome Trust . CW was supported by the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Guy's and St Thomas' National Health Service Foundation Trust and King's College London , funded by the NIHR . DS has received research grants or consultancy honoraria from Abbott , ABMRF , Astrazeneca , Biocodex , Eli-Lilly , GlaxoSmithKline , Jazz Pharmaceuticals , Johnson & Johnson , Lundbeck , National Responsible Gambling Foundation , Novartis , Orion , Pfizer , Pharmacia , Roche , Servier , Solvay , Sumitomo , Sun , Takeda , Tikvah , and Wyeth . DS would like to acknowledge support by the Medical Research Council of South Africa . DAQ was supported by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health under award number 5T32HD057822 . The content of this report is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. PJ is supported by a career development fellowship from the Wellcome Trust , Public Health Foundation of India and a consortium of UK universities . CK receives research grants from Brazilian public funding agencies Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnológico (CNPq) , Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) , and Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS) . He has also received authorship royalties from publishers Artmed and Manole. RAL is partly funded through the Farr Institute at CIPHER . The Farr Institute at CIPHER is supported by a ten-funder consortium: Arthritis Research UK , the British Heart Foundation , Cancer Research UK , the Economic and Social Research Council , the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council , the Medical Research Council , the National Institute of Health Research , the National Institute for Social Care and Health Research (Welsh Assembly Government) , the Chief Scientist Office (Scottish Government Health Directorates) , the Wellcome Trust , (MRC Grant No: MR/K006525/1 ). JAS has received research grants from Takeda and Savient and consultant fees from Savient , Takeda , Regeneron and Allergan . JAS is a member of the executive of OMERACT, an organisation that develops outcome measures in rheumatology and receives arms-length funding from 36 companies; a member of the American College of Rheumatology's Guidelines Subcommittee of the Quality of Care Committee; and a member of the Veterans Affairs Rheumatology Field Advisory Committee. SIH is funded by a Wellcome Trust Grant (# 095066 ). JM is funded as a Research Career Development Fellow from the Wellcome Trust (# 089963/Z/09/Z ). RL is supported by a National Health and Medical Research of Australia Fellowship . KK thanks the Director of International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) for giving KK the opportunity to do PhD at the IIPS, during which KK got the chance to become a GBD Study 2013 collaborator. HC is supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH , the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences . The GBD Vision Loss Expert Group received additional funding from Brien Holden Vision Institute . NP has an honorary position with the University of Melbourne, through the Centre for Eye Research Australia (CERA), and is employed by the Fred Hollows Foundation (FHF). Access to information on population-based prevalence studies from the countries they support work in was primarily as a result of her work at FHF, and the review of the manuscript and revisions suggested were a part of her position at CERA. CERA receives Operational Infrastructure CERA receives Operational Infrastructure Support funding from the Victorian Articles 56 Government. I-HO and S-JY's work was funded by a grant of the Korean Health Technology research and development project , Ministry of Health and Welfare, North Korea (grant number HI13C0729 ). SS is supported by grants from the NIH and employed by NRF and has honoraria from pharmaceutical companies. KD is supported by a Wellcome Trust Fellowship in Public Health and Tropical Medicine (grant number 099876 ). LM would like to acknowledge the Commonwealth Government of Australia and the Institute of Bone and Joint Research as funders of this work as all the original data collection for musculoskeletal was funded by these sources. BDG works for Agence de Médecine Préventive which receives grant specific support from Crucell , GlaxoSmithKline , Merck , Novartis , and Sanofi Pasteur . None of these sources contributed to the current work. MGS previously served as a consultant for Ellicon. DCDJ was supported by NIH grant R01 DA 003574 . LJA-R would like to acknowledge the Qatar National Research Fund ( NPRP 04-924-3-251 ) who provided the main funding for generating the data he provided to the GBD-IHME effort. The GBD Genitourinary Diseases Expert Group's activities with the GBD 2013 have been made on behalf of the International Society of Nephrology. AK would like to acknowledge funding support from Oklahoma Center for the Advancement of Science and Technology . KR is supported by the NIHR Oxford BRC and an NIHR Career Development Fellowship . KD is supported by a Wellcome Trust Training Fellowship (grant number 099876 ). KS would like to acknowledge funding from the South African Medical Research Council . IR and WHO staff acknowledge that the authors alone are responsible for the views expressed in this article and they do not necessarily represent the views, decisions or policies of the institutions with which they are affiliated.

Funding Information:
FP-R has consulted for Astra-Zeneca, Menarini, and Pfizer, honoraria for developing educational materials from Astra-Zeneca, and Menarini, been a speaker for Astra-Zeneca, Menarini, Sociedad Espanola de Reumatologia, and has received investigational grants from Fundacion Espanola de Reumatologia , Ministerio de Sanidad (Gobierno de Espana) , Asociacion de Reumatologos del Hospital de Cruces . JC reports grants from National Kidney Foundation , is a board member of the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes, and has a patent on glomerular filtration rate estimation using a panel of biomarkers pending. The other authors declare no competing interests.

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this