Host specificity and interaction networks of insects feeding on seeds and fruits in tropical rainforests

Yves Basset, Leonardo R. Jorge, Philip T. Butterill, Greg P.A. Lamarre, Chris Dahl, Richard Ctvrtecka, Sofia Gripenberg, Owen T. Lewis, Héctor Barrios, John W. Brown, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Buntika A. Butcher, Anthony I. Cognato, Stuart J. Davies, Ondrej Kaman, Petr Klimes, Miloš Knížek, Scott E. Miller, Geoffrey E. Morse, Vojtech NovotnyNantachai Pongpattananurak, Pairot Pramual, Donald L.J. Quicke, Watana Sakchoowong, Ruma Umari, Eero J. Vesterinen, George Weiblen, S. Joseph Wright, Simon T. Segar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

In the tropics, antagonistic seed predation networks may have different properties than mutualistic pollination and seed dispersal networks, but the former have been considerably less studied. We tested whether the structure of antagonistic tripartite networks composed of host plants, insects developing within seeds and fruits, and their insect parasitoids could be predicted from plant phylogenetic distance and plant traits. We considered subsets of the networks (‘subnetworks') at three rainforest locations (Panama, Thailand, Papua New Guinea), based on insect families, plant families or plant functional groups. We recorded 3197 interactions and observed a low percentage of realized interactions, especially in Panama, where insect host specificity was higher than in Thailand or New Guinea. Several factors may explain this, including insect faunal composition, incidence of dry fruits, high fruit production and high occurrence of Fabaceae at the Panamanian site. Host specificity was greater among seed-eaters than pulp-eaters and for insects feeding on dry fruits as opposed to insects feeding on fleshy fruits. Plant species richness within plant families did not influence insect host specificity, but site characteristics may be important in this regard. Most subnetworks were extremely specialized, such as those including Tortricidae and Bruchinae in Panama. Plant phylogenetic distance, plant basal area and plant traits (fruit length, number of seeds per fruit) had important effects on several network statistics in regressions weighted by sampling effort. A path analysis revealed a weak direct influence of plant phylogenetic distance on parasitoid richness, indicating limited support for the ‘nasty host hypothesis'. Our study emphasizes the duality between seed dispersal and seed predation networks in the tropics, as key plant species differ and host specificity tends to be low in the former and higher in the latter. This underlines the need to study both types of networks for sound practices of forest regeneration and conservation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1462-1476
Number of pages15
JournalOikos
Volume130
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
– This study was supported by ForestGEO and the Czech Science Foundation (GAČR 20‐31295S to YB). Field work on BCI was largely funded by a postdoctoral grant from the Academy of Finland to SG. Grants from the Smithsonian Institution Barcoding Opportunity FY013 and FY014 (to YB), from the ForestGEO Research Grant Program (to CD), and in‐kind help from the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding and Southern China DNA Barcoding Center allowed to sequence insect specimens. YB and HB were supported by the Sistema Nacional de Investigación, SENACYT, Panama. SG holds a Royal Society Univ. Research Fellowship. MK was partly supported by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic, institutional support MZE‐RO0118. DLJQ was supported by a Senior Postdoctoral Fellowship under Ratchadaphiseksomphot Fund, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn Univ. BAB was funded by Ratchadaphiseksomphot Endowment Fund Chulalongkorn Univ. (R/F_2559_019_05_23). VN was supported by European Research Council grant 669609. STS acknowledges Deptal support from Harper Adams Univ. Funding

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Nordic Society Oikos. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

Keywords

  • Barro Colorado Island
  • functional group
  • nasty host hypothesis
  • plant phylogeny
  • quantitative food web
  • seed predation

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