Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake in the US is suboptimal; identifying risk factors associated with low vaccine uptake is critical to increase vaccination coverage. Some evidence suggests body mass index (BMI) is associated with low HPV vaccine uptake and increased risk of HPV infection in adults. BMI may therefore be an important factor in targeting HPV vaccine to US adolescents. Methods: We investigated the relationship between BMI categories (underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese) and HPV vaccine uptake in 4109 adolescents (9-18 years old) using data from the 2009 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We used modified Poisson regression to assess the relationship between BMI and receipt of at least one HPV vaccine, and BMI and completion of the vaccine three-dose series. We assessed the relationship between BMI and age at first HPV vaccination using linear regression. Results: Receipt of at least one dose of HPV vaccine was low in both females (35%) and males (10%). High BMI was not associated with initiation of the HPV vaccine series, age at first HPV vaccination, or completion of the HPV vaccine three-dose course. Conclusions: We found no evidence that high BMI is associated with reduced initiation or completion of the HPV vaccination series, or age at initiation of the three-dose course among a general population sample of US adolescents. Our results suggest that efforts to increase HPV vaccine uptake need not consider targeting by weight status at this time.