Hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adult kidney transplant (Tx) recipients. We sought to determine the prevalence of, and the risk factors associated with, hyperlipidemia in pediatric kidney Tx recipients on cyclosporine (CsA). We identified 59 patients (mean age 8.2±5.7 years) transplanted between 1 January 1991 and 31 December 1993. Pre Tx, 34% had elevated total cholesterol [TC >200 mg/dl (5.17 mmol/l)]; 54% had elevated triglycerides [TG >200 mg/dl (2.26 mmol/L)]. Mean TG was higher pre Tx in dialysis (versus nondialysis) patients: 306 mg/dl (3.46 mmol/l) versus 228 mg/dl (2.58 mmol/l) (P=0.04). Mean TC was higher in peritoneal dialysis than hemodialysis patients: 222 mg/dl (5.74 mmol/l) versus 169 mg/dl (4.37 mmol/l) (P=0.03). Pre Tx and 3-year values correlated (TC, r=0.49, P=0.0008; TG, r=0.41, P=0.001); 3- and 5-year TC values correlated (r=0.57, P=0.003). At 5 years post Tx, 41% of the recipients had elevated TC; 14% had elevated TG. Recipients with elevated TC had higher mean CsA concentrations at 1 year post Tx (P=0.03). Recipients with elevated TG tended to receive more prednisone (P=0.06). At 5 years post Tx, recipients had a high prevalence of hyperlipidemia. The identification and treatment of hyperlipidemia should be included in pediatric kidney Tx protocols.