Implicit memory influences on metamemory during verbal learning after traumatic brain injury

Pradeep Ramanathan, Mary R.T. Kennedy, Chad J. Marsolek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Method: A standard 3-field masked priming paradigm was combined with a paired-associate learning task with JOLs and administered to individuals with TBI and matched controls (18 per group). In each trial, a subliminal masked stimulus was immediately followed by supraliminal presentation of a word pair for study; participants also made immediate and delayed JOLs, with cued-recall testing 10 min after study and judgment.

Results: Antipriming significantly lowered JOLs and overconfidence for both groups, whereas delaying JOLs significantly improved recall for both groups.

Conclusions: The results suggest that JOLs may be influenced by subliminal implicit memory. Clinical implications include the possible use of antipriming to reduce overconfidence after brain injury and delaying JOLs to improve recall.

Purpose: Prior research has shown that individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be overconfident in their judgments of learning (JOLs; online measures of self-monitoring of learning and memory). JOLs had been presumed to be driven by explicit processes, but recent research has also revealed implicit memory involvement. Given that implicit learning mechanisms are often intact in those with TBI, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether priming and antipriming of immediate and delayed JOLs in individuals with TBI might affect their overconfidence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1817-1830
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1 2014


  • Antipriming
  • Implicit memory
  • Judgments of learning
  • Metamemory
  • Priming
  • Recognition memory
  • Traumatic brain injury

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