There is a loss of skeletal muscle strength around the time of menopause in women, probably due to the decline of ovarian hormone production. The maintenance of muscle strength and contractility with age and with loss of ovarian hormones are critical issues because the risk for disability and dependent living increases with muscle weakness. There is substantial evidence that estradiol is beneficial to muscle strength. Thus, better understanding of the mechanisms by which estradiol affects contractility and how the loss of this hormone is detrimental to skeletal muscle function is critical. This chapter focuses on ovarian hormones, specifically how the lack of estradiol affects skeletal muscle contractility in both postmenopausal women and rodent models.
- Hormone replacement therapy
- Muscle force