Pressure-area isotherms, Brewster angle microscopy, and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that human lung surfactant protein SP-B1-78 and the dimer of the amino terminus dSP-B1-25 modify the phase behavior of lipid mixtures consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/palmitoyl-oleylphosphatidylglycerol/palmitic acid (DPPC/POPG/PA). The addition of SP-B increases the fraction of fluid phase in the liquid-expanded/liquid-condensed two-phase region. Brewster angle microscopy enabled the visualization of a fluid network, which separates the condensed phase domains. This network is stabilized by SP-B adsorption. GIXD measurements show that SP-B also alters the structure of the condensed chain lattice leading to higher tilt and increased area per hydrocarbon chain. The comparison of SP-B1-78 with the shorter peptide dSP-B1-25 exhibits, that the dimer alters the lipid order more drastically. The larger effects found for dSP-B1-25 were explained using a model that assumes a partial incorporation of the peptide into the layer. The specific behavior of the dimer could enhance the activity of the peptide as found in recent animal model studies. This is the first investigation showing a systematic influence of SP-B on the condensed chain lattice of phospholipids, thus Verifying that SP-B not only interacts with the expanded phase, but also interactions with the condensed phase lipids have to be taken into account which might be essential for proper peptide function.