Retransplantation is a major risk factor for invasive aspergillosis in liver transplant recipients. However, the risk for invasive aspergillosis with time elapsed since retransplantation, clinical characteristics, and outcome of patients who develop this infection after retransplantation of the liver has not been defined. Patients comprised 17 liver retransplant recipients with invasive aspergillosis between 1990 and 2004. Retransplantation was considered early if it was performed within 30 days and late if performed after 30 days of the first or primary transplant. Retransplant recipients comprised 25% of all cases of invasive aspergillosis after liver transplantation. Fifty-three percent of the Aspergillus infections occurred within 30 days, and 76% within 90 days of retransplantation. In all, 53% (9/17) of the patients were late retransplant recipients. Late compared to early retransplant recipients with invasive aspergillosis were more likely to have central nervous system involvement with invasive aspergillosis (56% vs. 0%, P = 0.03). Mortality rate was 100% for late and 63% for early retransplant recipients with Aspergillus infections. In conclusion, time-varying risk for invasive aspergillosis after retransplantation has implications relevant for guiding antifungal prophylaxis. Given a greater risk for disseminated infection and poor outcome in late retransplant recipients with aspergillosis, potent and aggressive antifungal therapy should be considered upfront in these patient.