A new genus Limadendron (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Brongniartieae) from northern South America is described and illustrated. The new genus is segregated from Poecilanthe based on a previous phylogenetic analysis. Limadendron is sister to Cyclolobium and differs from it mainly by its woody dehiscent legumes contrasting with the winged samaroid fruits of the latter. Two new combinations, Limadendron amazonicum (Ducke) Meireles & A. M. G. Azevedo and Limadendron hostmannii (Benth.) Meireles & A. M. G. Azevedo, are proposed. A distribution map and an identification key for the species are also provided.