Solid-state 13C NMR experiments and quantum chemical Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations of acetone adsorption were used to study the location of protons in anhydrous 12-tungstophosphoric acid (HPW), the mobility of the isolated and hydrated acidic protons, and the acid strength heterogeneity of the anhydrous hydroxyl groups. This study presents the first direct NMR experimental evidence that there are two types of isolated protons with different acid strengths in the anhydrous Keggin HPW. Rotational Echo DOuble Resonance (REDOR) NMR experiments combined with quantum chemical DFT calculations demonstrated that acidic protons in anhydrous HPW are localized on both bridging (Oc) and terminal (Od) atoms of the Keggin unit. The CP/MAS NMR experiments revealed that the isolated acidic protons are immobile, but hydrated acidic protons are highly mobile at room temperature. The isotropic chemical shift of the adsorbed acetone suggested that the acid strength of the H(H2O)n+ species in partially hydrated HPW is comparable to that of a zeolite, while the acidity of an isolated proton is much stronger than that of a zeolite. Isolated protons on the bridging oxygen atoms of anhydrous HPW are nearly superacidic.