Long-term outcomes of total pancreatectomy and islet auto transplantation for hereditary/genetic pancreatitis

Srinath Chinnakotla, David M. Radosevich, Ty B. Dunn, Melena D. Bellin, Martin L. Freeman, Sarah J. Schwarzenberg, A. N. Balamurugan, Josh Wilhelm, Barbara Bland, Selwyn M. Vickers, Gregory J. Beilman, David E R Sutherland, Timothy L. Pruett

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Abstract

Background Chronic pancreatitis is a debilitating disease resulting from many causes. The subset with hereditary/genetic pancreatitis (HGP) not only has chronic pain, but also an increased risk for pancreatic cancer. Long-term outcomes of total pancreatectomy (TP) and islet autogeneic transplantation (IAT) for chronic pancreatitis due to HGP are not clear. Study Design We reviewed a prospectively maintained database of 484 TP-IATs from 1977 to 2012 at a single center. The outcomes (eg, pain relief, narcotic use, β-cell function, health-related quality of life measures) of patients who received TP-IAT for HGP (protease trypsin 1, n = 38; serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1, n = 9; cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, n = 14; and familial, n = 19) were evaluated and compared with those with non-hereditary/nongenetic causes. Results All 80 patients with HGP were narcotic dependent and failed endoscopic management or direct pancreatic surgery. Post TP-IAT, 90% of the patients were pancreatitis pain free with sustained pain relief; >65% had partial or full β-cell function. Compared with nonhereditary causes, HGP patients were younger (22 years old vs 38 years old; p ≤ 0.001), had pancreatitis pain of longer duration (11.6 ± 1.1 years vs 9.0 ± 0.4 years; p = 0.016), had a higher pancreas fibrosis score (7 ± 0.2 vs 4.8 ± 0.1; p ≤ 0.001), and trended toward lower islet yield (3,435 ± 361 islet cell equivalent vs 3,850 ± 128 islet cell equivalent; p = 0.28). Using multivariate logistic regression, patients with non-HGP causes (p = 0.019); lower severity of pancreas fibrosis (p < 0.001); shorter duration of years with pancreatitis (p = 0.008); and higher transplant islet cell equivalent per kilogram body weight (p ≤ 0.001) were more likely to achieve insulin independence (p < 0.001). There was a significant improvement in health-related quality of life from baseline by RAND 36-Item Short Form Health Survey and in physical and mental component health-related quality of life scores (p < 0.001). None of the patients in the entire cohort had cancer of pancreatic origin in the liver or elsewhere develop during 2,936 person-years of follow-up. Conclusions Total pancreatectomy and IAT in patients with chronic pancreatitis due to HGP cause provide long-term pain relief (90%) and preservation of β-cell function. Patients with chronic painful pancreatitis due to HGP with a high lifetime risk of pancreatic cancer should be considered earlier for TP-IAT before pancreatic inflammation results in a higher degree of pancreatic fibrosis and islet cell function loss.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)530-543
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of the American College of Surgeons
Volume218
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2014

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