Objective - The aim of this project was to test the hypothesis that redox factor 1 (Ref-1) was a critical upstream determinant of NF-κB-dependent survival signaling pathways in the vessel wall. Methods and Results - Aortas from hemizygous transgenic mice harboring a single allele of Ref-1 exhibited a significant loss in NF-κB DNA binding activity. The NF-κB-dependent survival gene A20 was significantly downregulated in aortas of hemizygous Ref-1 mice, whereas IAP-2 was unchanged. Overexpression of A20 rescued cells from tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the loss of A20 in Ref-1 hemizygotes may be a rate-determining step in endothelial cell fate. Deletion of the previously defined redox-sensitive or the AP endonuclease domains of Ref-1 significantly decreased NF-κB transcriptional activation and endothelial cell survival. Furthermore, TNF-induced apoptosis was significantly potentiated in endothelial cells after delivery of Morpholino antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeted to Ref-1. Loss of the redox-sensitive domain blocked the ability of Ref-1 to reduce p50; however, loss of the endonuclease domain did not effect p50 reduction, suggesting alternative mechanisms of action of Ref-1 on NF-κB activity. Conclusions - These findings establish a role for Ref-1 as an upstream determinant of NF-κB and A20-dependent signaling and endothelial survival in the vessel wall.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology|
|State||Published - Jan 2005|
- Redox factor 1
- Signal transduction
- Vascular biology