Mammary gland involution is delayed by activated Akt in transgenic mice

Kathryn L. Schwertfeger, Monica M. Richert, Steven M. Anderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

146 Scopus citations


Activation of the antiapoptotic protein kinase Akt is induced by a number of growth factors that regulate mammary gland development. Akt is expressed during mammary gland development, and expression decreases at the onset of involution. To address Akt actions in mammary gland development, transgenic mice were generated expressing constitutively active Akt in the mammary gland under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter. Analysis of mammary glands from these mice reveals a delay in both involution and the onset of apoptosis. Expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), is prolonged and increased in the transgenic mice, suggesting that disruption of the MMP:TIMP ratio may contribute to the delayed mammary gland involution observed in the transgenic mice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)867-881
Number of pages15
JournalMolecular Endocrinology
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2001

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