Mass participation endurance sports events are popular but a large number of participants are older and may be at risk of medical complications during events. Medical encounters (defined fully in the statement) include those traditionally considered a € musculoskeletal' (eg, strains) and those due to a € illness' (eg, cardiac, respiratory, endocrine). The rate of sudden death during mass endurance events (running, cycling and triathlon) is between 0.4 and 3.3 per 100 000 entrants. The rate of other serious medical encounters (eg, exertional heat stroke, hyponatraemia) is rarely reported; in runners it can be up to 100 times higher than that of sudden death, that is, between 16 and 155 per 100 000 race entrants. This consensus statement has two goals. It (1) defines terms for injury and illness-related medical encounters, severity and timing of medical encounters, and diagnostic categories of medical encounters, and (2) describes the methods for recording data at mass participation endurance sports events and reporting results to authorities and for publication. This unifying consensus statement will allow data from various events to be compared and aggregated. This will inform athlete/patient management, and thus make endurance events safer.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
1Faculty of Health Sciences, Sport, Exercise Medicine and Lifestyle Institute (SEMLI), University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa 2Director, IOC Research Centre of South Africa, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa 3ISEH, University College London, London, UK 4Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Minnesota, St Paul, Minnesota, USA 5Family Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA 6Sports Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA 7International Institute for Race Medicine (IIRM), Boston, Massachusetts, USA 8Section Sports Medicine and Sport, Exercise Medicine and Lifestyle Institute (SEMLI), University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa 9Section Sports Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Sport, Exercise Medicine and Lifestyle Institute (SEMLI), University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa 10Sport, Exercise Medicine and Lifestyle Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa 11Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA 12IAAF Health and Science Department, International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), Rome, Italy 13Department of Health and Science, IAAF, Monte Carlo, Monaco 14Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), Aigle, Switzerland 15International Triathlon Union (ITU), Novara, Italy 16Biostatistics Unit, Medical Research Council, Parow, South Africa 17Neuosciences and Physiology, Goteborgs Universitet Sahlgrenska Akademin, Goteborg, Sweden 18Ostra Sjukhuset, Goteborg, Sweden Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge the contributions of medical staff for their service to the athletes participating in endurance events over many years, race organisers who support this consensus and all the athletes for their interest and participation in the races.
funding Partial funding for generating the consensus was received from two IOC Research Grants: (1) IOC Research Center grant to the University of Pretoria and (2) IOC Grant for study entitled: ’Reducing Medical Complications and Injuries at Endurance Sports Events: A 20-year Longitudinal Study (2008–2027). INTERNATIONAL MILLION+ ATHLETE PROJECT-SAFER (IMAPS)’.
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- medical encounters