Using a pulsed-beam transmission electron microscope, we discover a reduction in damage to methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) as compared to conventional beams delivered at the same dose rates. For rates as low as 0.001 e·Å-2·s-1, we find up to a 17% reduction in damage at a total dose of 10 e·Å-2. We systematically study the effects of number of electrons in each pulse and the duration between pulse arrival. Damage increases for both, though the number of electrons per pulse has a larger effect. A crossover is identified, where a pulsed beam causes more damage than a conventional one. Although qualitatively similar to previous findings, the degree to which damage is reduced in MAPbI3 is less than that observed for other materials (e.g., C36H74), supporting the hypothesis that the effects are material-and damage-mechanism-dependent. Despite this, the observation here of damage reduction for relatively large electron packets (up to 200 electrons per pulse) suggests that MAPbI3 is in fact less susceptible to irradiation than C36H74, which may be related to reported self-healing effects. This work provides insights into damage processes and durability in hybrid perovskites and also illustrates the viability of using pulsed-beam TEM to explore the associated molecular-level routes to degradation, analogous to laser-accelerated energetic pulsed electron beams and the study of damage to biomolecules, cells, and tissues in radiobiology.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This material is based on work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award No. DE-SC0018204. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. DGE-1348264. R.J.H. acknowledges support from the University of Minnesota Institute on the Environment and from Ronald A. and Janet A. Christenson. Part of this work was carried out in the College of Science and Engineering Characterization Facility, University of Minnesota, which has received capital equipment funding from the NSF through the UMN MRSEC program under Award Number DMR-2011401.
© 2020 American Chemical Society.
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