Quantitative determination of aromatic DNA adducts in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of current smokers is an useful surrogate biomarker for the evaluation of environmental carcinogen exposure or chemopreventive intervention. In this study, we examined the impact of Tahitian Noni Juice (TNJ) on the aromatic DNA adducts of PBLs, before and after a 1-mo intervention, using 32P postlabeling assay. Of 283 enrolled, 203 smokers completed the trial. Aromatic DNA adducts levels in all participants were significantly reduced by 44.9% (P 0.001) after drinking 1 to 4 oz of TNJ for 1 mo. Dose-dependent analyses of aromatic DNA adduct levels showed reductions of 49.7% (P 0.001) in the 1-oz TNJ group and 37.6% (P 0.001) in the 4-oz TNJ group. Gender-specific analyses resulted in no significant differences in the 4-oz TNJ groups. Interestingly, the 1-oz TNJ group showed a reduction of 43.1% (P 0.001) in females compared with 56.1% (P 0.001) in males. The results suggest that drinking 1 to 4 oz of TNJ daily may reduce the cancer risk in heavy cigarette smokers by blocking carcinogen-DNA binding or excising DNA adducts from genomic DNA.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research project was supported by a grant from Morinda Holdings, Inc., which provided all of the noni juice used in the intervention.