BackgroundAmerican Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) have high rates of tobacco use compared to the general population. AI/ANs also have elevated rates of psychiatric and substance use disorders associated with nicotine dependence. However, very few studies have examined the comorbidity between nicotine dependence and psychiatric and substance use disorders within this population. MethodsThis study analyzes the comorbidity of lifetime nicotine dependence with both current and lifetime psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders in a nationally representative sample of 701 AI/AN women and men. ResultsUsing 95% confidence interval testing, lifetime nicotine dependence (29.5%) was associated with all main diagnostic categories (any mood disorder, any anxiety disorder, any personality disorder, any alcohol use disorder, and any drug use disorder) both at the lifetime level and current (12-month) level. Of the lifetime disorders, the strongest associations were with psychosis and drug dependence. For (current) 12-month disorders, the strongest associations were with alcohol dependence and drug dependence. Differences were noted between genders regarding personality disorders. ConclusionsCulturally appropriate tobacco screening, prevention, and treatment curricula for adult AI/ANs with dual diagnoses are recommended. Understanding historically based factors that may contribute to psychiatric illness and substance use disorders may assist in more effective nicotine treatments for AI/ANs.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by a grant from the Department of Veterans Affairs (CDA-2) . The Department of Veterans Affairs had no further role in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data in the writing of the report; or the decision to submit the paper for publication.
- Alaska native
- American Indian
- Nicotine dependence
- Substance abuse