Researchers conducted studies to demonstrate several applications of optimal control in biomedical sciences, such as blood glucose control in diabetes, anesthesia, management of thyroid, administration of drugs, and cancer therapy. Some of the earliest applications of optimal control theory to diabetes investigated the glucose control problem for the optimal insulin infusion rate. A closed loop control based on matrix Riccati equation was obtained to conduct such investigations. The development of closed-loop algorithm led to maintaining blood glucose regulation that significantly improved the quality of life for insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Some of the latest research showed monitoring blood glucose level in blood stream was accomplished through invasive methods, such as finger prick and demonstrated that the use of noninvasive monitoring was to increase patient comfort and better insulin therapy.