In this chapter, we describe the necessary steps to optimize the design of radiofrequency pulses for solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy using a genetic algorithm (GA). We show that GA-optimized pulses significantly improve both sensitivity and resolution of NMR experiments, eliminating experimental imperfections. Additionally, we demonstrate the use of GA optimization to design band-selective pulses and manipulate individual spin systems with significantly different chemical shifts such as carbonyl and aliphatic carbon nuclei. These new offset-specific pulses (OSP) are of general use and can perform various operations on nuclei based on their chemical shift offsets. Replacing multiple band selective pulses with a single OSP can dramatically reduce pulsing time and power in classical NMR pulse sequences, increasing the sensitivity in multidimensional experiments.
- Broad-band pulses
- Composite pulses
- Genetic algorithm optimization
- NMR pulse design
- RF inhomogeneity