Pharmacogenetics is the study of how genetics influences drug treatment outcomes. Much research has been conducted to identify and characterize gene variants that impact the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of medications used to treat neurologic and psychiatric disorders. This chapter reviews the current state of pharmacogenetic aspects of these treatments. Medications with supporting pharmacogenetic information in product labeling, clinical guidelines, or important mechanistic implications are discussed. At this time, clinically relevant genetic variation in drug metabolizing enzymes may inform drug dosing for a number of medications metabolized in the liver. Additionally, genetic variation in immunological genes may be tested to assess risk for severe hypersensitivity reactions to some anticonvulsant drugs. Finally, a growing body of research highlights that genetic polymorphisms in drug targets may influence symptom response or tolerability to some treatments.