The antiphosphoprotein monoclonal antibody MPM-2 was used to investigate protein phosphorylation during flagellar regeneration in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. MPM-2 recognizes a phosphorylated epitope and detects several Chlamydomonas proteins by Western immunoblot analysis. Two MPM-2 reactive proteins (34 and 90 kD) increase in Western immunoblot intensity after flagellar excision and decrease in intensity during flagellar regeneration. Immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling revealed MPM-2 staining within the nucleus, especially towards the nuclear periphery, the flagellar basal apparatus, and the nucleus-basal body connector after flagellar excision. Comparison of MPM-2 reactivity in wild-type cells and in the mutant bald-2, which lacks functional basal bodies, demonstrates that the 34-kD protein is localized in the nucleus and the 90-kD protein is localized in the flagellar basal region. MPM-2 reactivity is observed in cells competent for flagellar regeneration. However, when cells were treated with the kinase inhibitor, staurosporine, MPM-2 reactivity did not increase after flagellar excision and flagellar regeneration was impaired. These observations suggest that phosphorylation of the 34- and 90-kD proteins may be important for flagellar regrowth. Possible roles for phosphorylation in flagellar regeneration include transcriptional activation and transport of flagellar precursors to the base of the growing flagella.