OBJECTIVE - Defining an optimal costimulatory blockade-based immune suppression protocol enabling engraftment and functional development of E42 pig embryonic pancreatic tissue in mice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Considering that anti-CD40L was found to be thrombotic in humans, we sought to test alternative costimulatory blockade agents already in clinical use, including CTLA4-Ig, anti-LFA1, and anti-CD48. These agents were tested in conjunction with T-cell debulking by anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 antibodies or with conventional immunosuppressive drugs. Engraftment and functional development of E42 pig pancreatic tissue was monitored by immunohistology and by measuring pig insulin blood levels. RESULTS - Fetal pig pancreatic tissue harvested at E42, or even as early as at E28, was fiercely rejected in C57BL/6 mice and in Lewis rats. A novel immune suppression comprising anti-LFA1, anti-CD48, and FTY720 afforded optimal growth and functional development. Cessation of treatment with anti-LFA1 and anti-CD48 at 3 months posttransplant did not lead to graft rejection, and graft maintenance could be achieved for >8 months with twice-weekly low-dose FTY720 treatment. These grafts exhibited normal morphology and were functional, as revealed by the high pig insulin blood levels in the transplanted mice and by the ability of the recipients to resist alloxan induced diabetes. CONCLUSIONS - This novel protocol, comprising agents that simulate those approved for clinical use, offer an attractive approach for embryonic xenogeneic transplantation. Further studies in nonhuman primates are warranted.