Objective: The objective was to determine the effect of preconception-initiated daily low-dose aspirin (LDA; 81 mg/day) treatment on time to pregnancy in women with a history of pregnancy loss. Design: This was a multicenter, block-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were block-randomized by center and eligibility stratum. Setting: The study was conducted at four U.S.A. medical centers (2007-2012). Participants: Participants women aged 18- 40 years actively attempting pregnancy, stratified by eligibility criteria: the "original" stratum, women with one loss <20 weeks' gestation during the previous year; and the "expanded" stratum, women with one or two previous losses of any gestational age regardless of time since loss. Intervention: Daily LDA was compared with matching placebo for up to six menstrual cycles of attempting pregnancy. Main Outcome Measure: Time to hCG detected pregnancy and clinically confirmed pregnancy, analyzed by intention-to-treat, was measured. Results: Of the 1228 women randomly assigned to LDA (n = 615) or placebo (n = 613), 410 (67%) women receiving LDA achieved pregnancy compared to 382 (63%) receiving placebo, corresponding to a fecundability odds ratio (FOR) of 1.14 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.33). Among women in the original stratum (n = 541), LDA was associated with increased fecundability compared to placebo (FOR: 1.28; 95%CI: 1.02, 1.62). Conclusions: Preconception-initiated LDA treatment resulted in a nonsignificant increase in fecundability of 14% in women with a history of 1-2 pregnancy losses, and a significant increase of 28% in women with a history of only one pregnancy loss of =20 weeks' gestation in the preceding year. Preconception-initiated LDA may increase fecundability in certain women with a recent early pregnancy loss.