The transfer of spermatophore contents derived from testes during mating greatly stimulates ovipositional activity for long periods of time in the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (L.). Since prostaglandins appear to play a role in reproduction in several insect species, and since prostaglandin synthesis enzymes occur in cricket testes and spermatophores, we investigated the role of prostaglandins in the regulation of long‐term oviposition. Inactivation of prostaglandin synthesis enzymes in males or females using specific inhibitors failed to block mating‐induced increases in egg laying. However, males lacking sperm because of X‐irradiation were unable to induce oviposition even though they mated, transferred spermatophores, and had high levels of prostaglandins in both testes and spermatophores. X‐irradiation was also used to generate males with nonfunctional sperm. Females mated to these animals readily laid eggs, which failed to develop. It appeared that sperm or a factor associated with sperm induced long‐term oviposition in female house crickets. Prostaglandin synthesis enzymes transferred from the male to females may have other roles in the female, for example, in sperm maintenance in the spermatheca. Previous observations strongly suggest that prostaglandins induce egg laying behavior and activity; they may be synthesized by female enzymes that are regulated by male‐derived factors.