OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine potential risk factors for upper genital tract inflammation in women with cervical Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or bacterial vaginosis. STUDY DESIGN: In a case- controlled study we compared 111 women with cervical Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or bacterial vaginosis (the study group) with 24 women who had negative tests for each of these infections (the control group). We evaluated potential risk factors for upper genital tract inflammation by use of bivariate and then logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: We found plasma cell endometritis in 53 of 111 women in the study group and 3 of 24 controls (odds ratio = 6.4, 95% confidence interval 1.7 to 35.0). On logistic regression, the study group women who were in the proliferative phase had increased likelihood of plasma cell endometritis (odds ratio = 4.5, 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 12.4). CONCLUSION: The proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle seems to be the primary risk factor for ascending infection by organisms associated with pelvic inflammatory disease. This may be due to a hormonal effect or to the loss of the cervical barrier during menstruation.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Supported in part by National Institutes of Health, National Institutes of Allergy, and Infectious Diseases grant No. 5-UO1-AI31499-03.
Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Bacterial vaginosis
- Pelvic inflammatory disease
- Plasma cell endometritis