The stability of uncertain feedback interconnections of causal time-varying linear systems is studied in terms of a recently established generalisation of the v-gap metric. In particular, a number of robustness results from the well-known linear time-invariant theory are extended. The time-varying generalisations include: sufficient conditions for robust stability; a bound on robust performance; and two-sided bounds on the induced norm of the variation in a closed-loop mapping as an open-loop component of the feedback interconnection is perturbed. Underlying assumptions are verified for causal systems that exhibit linear periodically time-varying behaviour. This includes a class of sampled-data systems as a special case. Within the periodic context considered, it can be shown that a robust stability condition is also necessary.