Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major cause of cancer death among men. The histopathological examination of post-surgical prostate specimens and manual annotation of PCa not only allow for detailed assessment of disease characteristics and extent, but also supply the ground truth for developing of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for PCa detection before definitive treatment. As manual cancer annotation is tedious and subjective, there have been a number of publications describing methods for automating the procedure via the analysis of digitized whole-slide images (WSIs). However, these studies have focused only on the analysis of WSIs stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), even though there is additional information that could be obtained from immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. In this work, we propose a framework for automating the annotation of PCa that is based on automated colorimetric analysis of both H&E and IHC WSIs stained with a triple-antibody cocktail against high-molecular weight cytokeratin (HMWCK), p63, and α-methylacyl CoA racemase (AMACR). The analysis outputs were then used to train a regression model to estimate the distribution of cancerous epithelium within slides. The approach yielded an AUC of 0.951, sensitivity of 87.1%, and specificity of 90.7% as compared to slide-level annotations, and generalized well to cancers of all grades.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health (R01-CA1155268, P41-EB015894, T32-GM008244, TL1-R002493, UL1-TR002494), U.S. Department of Defense (W81XWH-15-1-0477), and the University of Minnesota Graduate School Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship. This content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.